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NOISE in BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR

Every day you may make progress. Every step may be fruitful.

Yet there will stretch out before you an ever-lengthening, ever-ascending, ever-improving path.

 You know you will never get to the end of the journey.

 But this, so far from discouraging, only adds to the joy and glory of the climb”

(Sir Winston Churchill)

  1. Zhao Qi-Feng; Zhuang Yi-Qi; Bao Jun-Lin; et al.: Radiation-induced 1/f noise degradation of PNP bipolar junction transistors at different dose rates. Chinese Physics B, Vol. 25, no. 4, 2016, Article # 046104. DOI 10.1088/1674-1056/25/046104

  2. Su Z., J. Kolbusz, B.M. Wilamowski: Linearization of Bipolar Amplifiers Based on Neural-Network Training Algorithm. IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 63, no. 6, 2016, pp. 37373744. DOI 10.1109/TIE.2016.2540582

  3. S. Zafar, T. Ning: Bipolar junction transistor based sensors for chemical and biological sensing. 46th European Solid-State Device Research Conf. (ESSDERC), 2016, pp. 389 392. DOI 10.1109/ESSDERC.2016.7599668

  4. T. Oshita, J. Shor, D.E. Duarte, A. Kornfeld, D. Zilberman: Compact BJT-Based Thermal Sensor for Processor Applications in a 14 nm tri-Gate CMOS Process. IEEE J. of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 50, no. 3, 2015, pp. 799 – 807. DOI 10.1109/JSSC.2015.2396522

  5. Zhao Qifeng; Zhuang Yiqi; Bao Junlin; et al.: 1/f Noise Model for NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors Based on Radiation Effect. IEEE Trans. on Nuclear Science, Vol. 62, no. 4, Part: 1, 2015, pp. 16821688. DOI 10.1109/TNS.2015.2456132

  6. Zhao Qi-Feng; Zhuang Yi-Qi; Bao Jun-Lin; et al.: Quantitative separation of radiation induced charges for NPN bipolar junction transistors based on 1/f noise model. Acta Physica Sinica, Vol. 64, no. 13, 2015, Article # 136104. DOI 10.7498/aps.64.136104

  7. N.J.H. Roche, A. Khachatrian, S.P. Buchner, et al.: Impact of Cumulative Irradiation Degradation and Circuit Board Design on the Parameters of ASETs Induced in Discrete BJT-based Circuits. IEEE Trans. on Nuclear Science, Vol. 62, no. 6, 2015, pp. 2732 2742. DOI 10.1109/TNS.2015.2498309

  8. P. Sakalas, M. Schroter: Noise in advanced bipolar transistors at mm-wave frequencies. Int. Conf. on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF), 2015, pp. 16. DOI 10.1109/ICNF.2015.7288542

  9. H. Feng, W. Yang, Y. Onozawa, T. Yoshimura, A. Tamenori, J.K.O. Sin: A New Fin p-Body Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor With Low Miller Capacitance. IEEE ED Lett., Vol. 36, no. 6, 2015, pp. 591 593. DOI 10.1109/LED.2015.2426197

  10. C. Stefanucci, P. Buccella, M. Kayal, J.M. Sallese: Modeling parasitic vertical PNP in HVCMOS. 22nd Int. Conf. Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits & Systems (MIXDES), 2015, pp. 486 489. DOI 10.1109/MIXDES.2015.7208568

  11. Q. Zhao, Y. Zhuang, J. Bao, W. Hu: 1/f Noise model for PNP bipolar junction transistors based on radiation effect. Int. Conf. on Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF), 2015, pp. 14. DOI 10.1109/ICNF.2015.7288618

  12. M. Seif, F. Pascal, B. Sagnes, S. Haendler: Characterization and modeling of low frequency noise in 0.13 µm BiCMOS SiGe:C heterojunction bipolar trasnsistors. Conf. on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME), 2014, pp. 14. DOI 10.1109/PRIME.2014.6872699

  13. M.W. Pospieszalski: On noise properties of transistors and amplifiers a critical review. 20th Int. Conf. on Microwaves, Radar & Wireless Communications (MIKON), 2014, pp. 15. DOI 10.1109/MIKON.2014.6899979

  14. J. Žilak, M. Koričić, H. Mochizuki, S. Morita, K. Shinomura, H. Imai, T. Suligoj: Examination of Horizontal Current Bipolar Transistor (HCBT) reliability characteristics. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits & Technology Meeting (BCTM), 2014. DOI 10.1109/BCTM.2014.6981281

  15. Kwon K., Nam I.: A Linearization Technique for a Transconductor Using Vertical Bipolar Junction Transistors in a CMOS Process. IEEE Trans on MTT, Vol. 61, no. 1, Part 1, 2013, pp. 195 – 203. DOI 10.1109/TMTT.2012.2226602

  16. Lanni L., Malm B.G., Ostling M., Zetterling C.-M.: 500°C Bipolar Integrated OR/NOR Gate in 4H-SiC. IEEE ED Lett., Vol. 34, no. 9, 2013, pp. 1091 – 1093. DOI 10.1109/LED.2013.2272649

  17. Wei-Ling Chang, Chin-Chun Meng, Jin-Siang Syu, Chia-Ling Wang, Guo-Wei Huang: 2.4-GHz 7.4-mW 300-kHz flicker-noise-corner direct conversion receiver using 0.18 μm CMOS and deep-n-well NPN BJT. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS), 2013, pp. 223 – 225. DOI 10.1109/RWS.2013.6486695

  18. Ulansky V., Ben Suleiman S.F.: A low phase-noise GaAs FET/BJT voltage-controlled oscillator for microwave applications. Int. Symp. on Physics & Eng. of Microwaves, Millimeter and Submillimeter Waves (MSMW), 2013, pp. 407 – 414 DOI 10.1109/MSMW.2013.6622100

  19. Kostov K., Rabkowski J., Nee H.-P.: Conducted EMI from SiC BJT Boost Converter and its Dependence on the Output Voltage, Current, and Heatsink Connection. 5th IEEE Annual Int. Energy Conversion Congress and Exhibition (ECCE), IEEE ECCE Asia Downunder (ECCE Asia), 2013, pp. 1125 – 1130. DOI 10.1109/ECCE-Asia.2013.6579249

  20. Niehenke E.C.: The evolution of low noise devices and amplifiers. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Digest (IMS), 2012, pp. 1 – 3. DOI 10.1109/MWSYM.2012.6258248

  21. Nam I., Moon Hyunwon, Woo Doo Hyung: Low Noise and Highly Linear Wideband CMOS RF Front-End for DVB-H Direct-Conversion Receiver. IEICE Trans on Communications, Vol. E95B, no. 7, 2012, pp. 2498 – 2500. DOI 10.1587/transcom.E95.B.2498

  22. Kejun Xia, Guofu Niu, Ziyan Xu : A New Approach to Implementing High-Frequency Correlated Noise for Bipolar Transistor Compact Modeling. IEEE Trans on ED, Vol. 59, no 2, 2012, pp 302 – 308. DOI 10.1109/TED.2011.2174795

  23. Lanni L., Ghandi R., Malm B.G., Zetterling C., Ostling M.: Design and Characterization of High-Temperature ECL-Based Bipolar Integrated Circuits in 4H-SiC. IEEE Trans. on ED, Vol. 59, no. 4, 2012, pp. 1076 – 1083. DOI 10.1109/TED.2011.2182514

  24. Byoungjoong Kang, Jinhyuck Yu, Heeseon Shin, Sangsoo Ko, Won Ko, Sung-Gi Yang, Wooseung Choo, Byeong-Ha Park: Design and Analysis of a Cascode Bipolar Low-Noise Amplifier With Capacitive Shunt Feedback Under Power-Constraint. IEEE Trans on MTT, Vol. 59, no. 6, 2011, pp. 1539 – 1551. DOI 10.1109/TMTT.2011.2136355

  25. Shuo-Mao Chen, Yean-Kuen Fang, Feng-Renn Juang, Chia-Chung Chen, Liu, S., Chin-Wei Kuo, Chih-Ping Chao, Hua-Chou Tseng: A Low-Flicker Noise Gate-Controlled Lateral–Vertical Bipolar Junction Transistor Array With 55-nm CMOS Technology. IEEE Trans on ED, Vol. 58, no. 10, 2011, pp. 3276 – 3282. DOI 10.1109/TED.2011.2161312

  26. Kezheng Li, Kok Hoe Kong, Gamble, H., Armstrong, M.: Ultra-shallow emitter formation for germanium bipolar transistor by diffusion from polycrystalline germanium. Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp. (ISDRS), 2011, pp.1 – 2. DOI 10.1109/ISDRS.2011.6135275

  27. Tuinhout H., Zegers-van Duijnhoven A., Mertens H., Heringa A.: A new technique for characterizing very low frequency noise of bipolar junction transistors. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM), 2011, pp. 170 – 173. DOI 10.1109/BCTM.2011.6082774

  28. Y. Onozawa, D. Ozaki, H. Nakano, T. Yamazaki, N. Fujishima : Development of the next generation 1700V trench-gate FS-IGBT. Proc. of the 23rd Int.Symp. on Power Semiconductor Devices & IC's, 2011, San Diego, CA DOI 10.1109/ISPSD.2011.5890788

  29. Vitale F., Pijper R., van der Toorn R.: Base resistance distribution in bipolar transistors: Relevance to compact noise modeling and extraction from admittance parameters. IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM), 2010, pp.161 – 164. DOI 10.1109/BIPOL.2010.5667931

  30. Nakano H., Onozawa Y., Kawano R., Yamazaki T., Seki Y.: 600V trench-gate IGBT with Micro-P structure. 21st Int. Symp. on Power Semicond. Dev. & IC's, ISPSD 2009, Barcelona, 14-18 June 2009, pp 132 – 135. DOI 10.1109/ISPSD.2009.5158019

  31. Hashemian R.: Hybrid equivalent circuit, an alternative to Thevenin and Norton equivalents, its properties and applications. 2009 52nd IEEE Int. Midwest Symp. on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), pp 800 – 803. DOI 10.1109/MWSCAS.2009.5235889

  32. Chindris G., Muresan M.: Bipolar Junction Effects for High Entropy Data Harvesters. 10th Int. Symp. on Symbolic and Numeric Algorithms for Scientific Computing. SYNASC '08, Timisoara, 26-29 Sept. 2008, pp 449 – 452. DOI 10.1109/SYNASC.2008.90

  33. Kejun Xia, Guofu Niu: Impact of Collector-Base Space Charge Region on RF Noise in Bipolar Transistors. 2006 Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, 8-10 Oct. 2006, Maastricht, pp 1 – 4. DOI 10.1109/BIPOL.2006.311126

  34. Florian C., Traverso P.A., Borgarino M., Filicori F.: A Non-Linear Noise Model of Bipolar Transistors for the Phase-Noise Performance Analysis of Microwave Oscillators. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symposium Digest, 2006, pp 659 – 662. DOI 10.1109/MWSYM.2006.249700

  35. Marinkovic Z., Markovic V.: Accurate Temperature Dependent Noise Models of Microwave Transistors Based on Neural Networks. European Gallium Arsenide and Other Semiconductor Application Symposium, GAAS 2005, 3-4 Oct. 2005, pp 389 – 392. ISBN 8890201207

  36. Hoque Md Mazhar Ul, Celik-Butler Z., Trogolo J., Weiser D., Green K.: 1/f noise in positive-negative-positive (PNP) polycrystalline silicon-emitter bipolar transistors. J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, no 8, Apr 2005, pp 084501 – 084501-10. DOI 10.1063/1.1868058

  37. Niu G.: Noise in SiGe HBT RF Technology: Physics, Modeling, and Circuit Implications. Proc of the IEEE, Vol. 93, no 9, Sept. 2005, pp 1583 – 1597. DOI 10.1109/JPROC.2005.852226

  38. S.L. Rumyantsev, M.E. Levinshtein, A.K. Agarwal, J.W. Palmour: Low frequency noise in 4H-SiC BJTs. Semicond. Sci. Technol., Vol. 19, no. 7, 2004, pp. 950 – 952. DOI 10.1088/0268-1242/19/7/030

  39. Niu G.: Bridging the gap between microscopic and macroscopic theories of noise in bipolar junction transistors. 2004 Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, 8-10 Sept. 2004. Digest of Papers, pp 227 – 230. DOI 10.1109/SMIC.2004.1398209

  40. Deen M.J., Pascal F.: Review of low-frequency noise behaviour of polysilicon emitter bipolar junction transistors. IEE Proc. Circuits, Devices and Systems, Vol. 151, no 2, 12 April 2004, pp 125 – 137. DOI 10.1049/ip-cds:20040106

  41. Paasschens J.: Compact Modeling of the Noise of a Bipolar Transistor under DC and AC Current Crowding Conditions. IEEE Trans on ED, vol 51, no 9, Sept 2004, pp 1483 – 1495. DOI 10.1109/TED.2004.833580

  42. Deen M.J.: Editorial - Noise in devices and circuits. Proc of IEE - Circuits, Devices and Systems, Vol. 151, no. 2, 2004, pp. 93 – 94. DOI 10.1049/ip-cds:20040556

  43. Hsu, S.S.H.; Pavlidis, D.: A comparison of low-frequency noise characteristics and noise sources in NPN and PNP InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistors. IEEE Trans on ED, Vol. 50, no 9, 2003, pp 1974 – 1982. DOI 10.1109/TED.2003.815367

  44. Enhai Zhao, Celik-Butler Z., Thiel F., Dutta R.: Temperature dependence of 1/f noise in polysilicon-emitter bipolar transistors. IEEE Trans on ED, Vol. 49, no. 12, 2002, pp. 2230 – 2236. DOI 10.1109/TED.2002.805223

  45. Forbes L., Chandra I., Zhang C.W.: New pi-model of bipolar transistor noise for circuit analysis and simulation and technique to reduce phase noise in bipolar oscillators. The 2002 45th Midwest Symp. on Circuits and Systems MWSCAS-2002, 4-7 Aug. 2002, Vol. 3, pp III-188 - III-191. DOI 10.1109/MWSCAS.2002.1187002

  46. Forbes L., Zhang C.W., Zhang B.L.: Experimental Verification of the Dependence of Bipolar Transistor Flicker Noise on Power Dissipation. IEEE Trans on ED, vol. 49, no. 5, 2002, pp 945 – 947. DOI 10.1109/16.998609

  47. Jungermann C., Neinhüs B., Meinerzhagen B.: Hierarchical 2-D DD and HD Noise Simulations of Si and SiGe Devices - Part I: Theory. IEEE Trans on ED, vol. 49, no.7, 2002, pp 1250 – 1257. DOI 10.1109/TED.2002.1013283

  48. Jungermann C., Neinhüs B., Decker S., Meinerzhagen B.: Hierarchical 2-D DD and HD Noise Simulations of Si and SiGe Devices - Part II: Results. IEEE Trans on ED, vol. 49, no.7, 2002, pp 1258 – 1264. DOI 10.1109/TED.2002.1013284

  49. Sanden M., Marinov O., Deen M.J., Ostling M.: A new model for the low-frequency noise and the noise level variation in polysilicon emitter BJTs. IEEE Trans on ED, vol. 49, no. 3, 2002, pp. 514 – 520. DOI 10.1109/16.987124

  50. Martin-Martinez M. J., Perez S., Pardo D., Gonzalez T.: Monte Carlo analysis of the noise behavior in Si bipolar junction transistors and SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors at radio frequencies. J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 90, no 3, Aug 2001, pp 1582 – 1588. DOI 10.1063/1.1384850

  51. Vandamme L.K.J., Trefan G.: Review of low-frequency noise in bipolar transistors over the last decade. Proc of the 2001 Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, 2001, pp 68 – 73. DOI 10.1109/BIPOL.2001.957859

  52. Pogany D., Chroboczek J. A., Ghibaudo G.: Random telegraph signal noise mechanisms in reverse base current of hot carrier-degraded submicron bipolar transistors: Effect of carrier trapping during stress on noise characteristics. Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 89, no. 7, 2001, pp. 4049 – 4058. DOI 10.1063/1.1352560

  53. Sanden M., Marinov O., J. Deen M., Ostling M.: Modeling the variation of the low-frequency noise in polysilicon emitter bipolar junction transistors. IEEE Electron Dev. Letters, Vol. 22, no 5, 2001, pp 242 – 244. DOI 10.1109/55.919242

  54. Babcock J.A., Schroder D.K., Huang W.-L.M., Ford J.M.: Low-frequency noise in TFSOI lateral n-p-n bipolar transistors. IEEE Trans on ED, Vol. 48, no 5, 2001, pp 956 – 965. DOI 10.1109/16.918244

  55. Niu G., Cressler J.D., Zhang S., Ansley W.E, Webster C., Harame D.: A Unified Approach to RF and Microwave Noise Parameter Modeling in Bipolar Transistors. IEEE Trans. on ED, vol. 48, no. 11, Nov. 2001, pp 2568 – 2573. DOI 10.1109/16.960384

  56. Fiori F., Pozzolo V.: Modified Gummel-Poon model for susceptibility prediction. IEEE Trans on EMC, Vol. 42, no 2, 2000, pp 206 – 213. DOI 10.1109/15.852414

  57. Patti F., Miceli V., Spagnolo B.: Stochastic approach to noise modelling of bipolar microwave transistors. 1999 Symp on High Performance Electron Devices for Microwave and Optoelectronic Applications (EDMO), 1999, pp. 236 – 241. DOI 10.1109/EDMO.1999.821491

  58. Sanchez J. E., Bosman G.: Frequency conversion of flicker noise in bipolar junction transistors. Proc of Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, September 1998, pp. 176 – 179. DOI 10.1109/BIPOL.1998.741918

  59. Sinnesbichler F.X., Fischer M., Olbrich G.R.: Accurate extraction method for 1/f-noise parameters used in Gummel-Poon type bipolar junction transistor models. 1998 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Digest, Vol. 3, 1998, pp.1345 – 1348. DOI 10.1109/MWSYM.1998.700623

  60. Deen J. M., Rumyantsev S., Bashir R., Taylor R.: Measurements and comparison of low frequency noise in npn and pnp polysilicon emitter bipolar junction transistors. J. of Applied Physics, vol. 84, no. 1, 1998, pp 625 – 633. DOI 10.1063/1.368066

  61. Llinares P., Celi D., Roux-dit-Buisson O., Ghibaudo G., Chroboczek J. A.: Dimension scaling of 1/f noise in the base current of quasiself-aligned polysilicon emitter bipolar junction transistors. J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 82, no. 5, Sep 1997, pp 2671 – 2675. DOI 10.1063/1.366082

  62. Jarrix S., Delseny C., Pascal F., Lecoy G.: Noise correlation measurements in bipolar transistors. I. Theoretical expressions and extracted current spectral densities. J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 81, no 6, 1997, pp 2651 – 2657. DOI 10.1063/1.363930

  63. Delseny C., Pascal F., Jarrix S., Lecoy G.: Noise correlation measurements in bipolar transistors. II. Correlation between base and collector currents. J. of Applied Physics , Vol. 81, no. 6, 1997, pp 2658 – 2664. DOI 10.1063/1.363931

  64. Voinigescu S., Maliepaard M.C., Showell J.L., Babcock G.E., Marchesan D., Schroter M., Schvan P., Harame D.L. : A Scalable High-Frequency Noise Model for Bipolar Transistors with Application to Optimal Transistor Sizing for Low-Noise Amplifier Design. IEEE Journal of SSC, vol. 32, no. 9, Sept. 1997, pp 1430 – 1439. DOI 10.1109/4.628757

  65. Walls F. L., Ferre-Pikal E. S., Jefferts S. R.: Origin of 1/f PM and AM Noise in Bipolar Junction Transistor Amplifiers. IEEE Trans on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Freq. Control, Vol. 44, no 2, March 1997, pp 326 – 334. DOI 10.1109/58.585117

  66. Zillmann U., Herzel F.: An Improved SPICE Model for High-Frequency Noise of BJT's and HBT's. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circ., vol. 31, no. 9, Sept. 1996, pp 1344 – 1346. DOI 10.1109/4.535422

  67. Aufinger K., Böck J., Meister T., Popp J.: Noise Characteristics of Transistors Fabricated in an Advanced Silicon Bipolar Technology. IEEE Trans on ED, vol. 43, no. 9, Sept. 1996, pp 1533 – 1538. DOI 10.1109/16.535346

  68. Mohajerzadeh S., Nathan A.: Modeling noise correlation behavior in dual-collector magnetotransistors using small signal equivalent circuit analysis. IEEE Trans on Electron Devices, Vol. 43, no. 6, 1996, pp 883 – 888. DOI 10.1109/16.502119

  69. Mounib A., Ghibaudo G., Balestra F., Pogany D., Chantre A., Chroboczek J.: Low frequency (1/f ) noise model for the base current in polysilicon emitter bipolar junction transistors. J. of Applied Physics, Vol. 79, no. 6, 1996, pp. 3330 – 3336. DOI 10.1063/1.361233

  70. Vempati L.S., Cressler J.D., Babcock J.A., Jaeger R.C., Harame D.L.: Low-frequency noise in UHV/CVD epitaxial Si and SiGe bipolar transistors. IEEE JSSC, Vol. 31, no. 10, 1996, pp. 1458 – 1467. DOI 10.1109/4.540056

  71. J.A. Babcock; J.D. Cressler; L.S. Vempati; A.J. Joseph; D.L. Harame: Correlation of low-frequency noise and emitter-base reverse-bias stress in epitaxial Si- and SiGe-base bipolar transistors. Int. Electron Devices Meeting, (IEDM '95), 1995. DOI 10.1109/IEDM.1995.499214

  72. De Vreede L. N., De Graaf H. C., Hurckx G., Tauritz, Baets R. G. F.: A Figure of Merit for the High-Frequency Noise Behavior of Bipolar Transistors. JSSC, vol. 29, no. 10, 1994, pp 1220 – 1226. DOI 10.1109/4.315206

  73. Rohde U., Gerber J.,Chang C.: Obtain Large Signal Model for Microwave Transistors. Microwaves & RF, 1994, pp. 103 – 110.

  74. Pucel R. A., Rohde U. L.: An Exact Expression for the Noise Resistance Rn for the Hawkins Bipolar Noise Model. IEEE Microwave and Guided Wave Lett., Vol. 3, no. 2, 1993, pp. 35 – 37. DOI 10.1109/75.196033

  75. C.M. Van Vliet: Bandgap narrowing and emitter efficiency in heavily doped emitter structures revisited. Trans on ED, Vol. 40, no. 6, 1993, pp. 1140 – 1147. DOI 10.1109/16.214741

  76. Moinian S., Choma J. Jr.: The Frequency Response of Bipolar Transistor Noise Figure. IEEE Trans. on Circ. and Syst., vol. CAS-33, no. 1, 1986, pp. 72 – 76. DOI 10.1109/TCS.1986.1085831

  77. Van der Ziel A., Bosman G.: Accurate expression for the noise temperature of common emitter microwave transistors. IEEE Trans on Electron Devices, Vol. 31, no. 9, 1984, pp. 1280 – 1283. DOI 10.1109/T-ED.1984.21700

  78. Stoisiek M., Wolf D.: Origin of 1/f noise in bipolar transistors. IEEE Trans. on ED, vol. 27, no. 9, 1980, pp. 1753 – 1757. DOI 10.1109/T-ED.1980.20097

  79. Stoisiek M., Wolf D., Werner W.: Bipolar transistors with low 1/f noise. Electronics Lett., Vol. 16, no 10, 1980, pp. 372 – 373. DOI 10.1049/el:19800264

  80. Hawkins R. J.: Limitations of Nielsen's and Related Noise Equations Applied to Microwave Bipolar Transistors, and a New Expression for the Frequency and Current Dependent Noise Figure. Solid State Electronics, Vol. 20, no. 3, 1977, pp. 191 – 196. doi:10.1016/0038-1101(77)90183-6

  81. Van der Ziel A., Cruz-Emeric J., Livingstone R.D., Malpass J.C., McNamara D.A.: A More Accurate Expression for the Noise Figure of Transistors. Solid-State Electronics, Vol. 19, no. 2, 1976, pp. 149 – 151. doi:10.1016/0038-1101(76)90094-0

  82. Das M.B., Dogha O.: On the Noise Performance of Bipolar Transistors in Untuned Amplifiers. Solid-State Electronics, Vol. 19, no. 10, 1976, pp. 827 – 836. doi:10.1016/0038-1101(76)90039-3

  83. Martin J.-C., Blasquez G.: Reliability Prediction of Silicon Bipolar Transistors by Means of Noise Measurements. 12th Annual Reliability Physics Symp., 1974, pp. 54 – 59. DOI 10.1109/IRPS.1974.362627

  84. Choma J. Jr.: A Model for the Computer-Aided Noise Analysis of Broad-Banded Bipolar Circuits. IEEE Journal of SSC, Vol. SC-9, no. 6, 1974, pp. 429 – 435. DOI 10.1109/JSSC.1974.1050538

  85. Min H. S., Van Vliet K. M.: Theory of Intermediate and High Injection Noise in Transistors. Solid-State Electronics, Vol. 17, no. 3, 1974, pp. 285 – 300. doi:10.1016/0038-1101(74)90016-1

  86. Hartmann K., Strutt M.J.O.: Scattering and Noise Parameters of Four Recent Microwave Bipolar Transistors up to 12 GHz. Proc. of IEEE, 1973, pp. 133 – 135. DOI 10.1109/PROC.1973.8988

  87. Wang A., Stoneham E., Kakihana S.: Exact noise figure model for ultra low noise microwave bipolar transistors. 1972 Int. Electron Devices Meeting, 1972, pp. 34. DOI 10.1109/IEDM.1972.249257

  88. Lauritzen P. O.: Effects of Radiation on the Noise Performance of Transistors. IEEE Trans on Nuclear Science, vol. 19, no. 2, 1972, pp. 321 – 326. DOI 10.1109/TNS.1972.4326685

  89. Jaeger R. C., Brodersen A. J.: Low-Frequency Noise Sources in Bipolar Junction Transistors. IEEE Trans. on ED, vol. ED-17, no. 2, Feb. 1970, pp 128 – 134. DOI 10.1109/T-ED.1970.16937

  90. McDonald B.A.: Avalanche-induced 1/f noise in bipolar transistors. IEEE Trans. on ED, vol. 17, no. 2, June 1970, pp 134 – 136. DOI 10.1109/T-ED.1970.16938

  91. Baechtold W., Strutt M. J. O.: Noise in Microwave Transistors. IEEE Trans. on MTT, vol. MTT-16, no. 9, Sept. 1968, pp 578 – 585. DOI 10.1109/TMTT.1968.1126756

  92. Tong A.H., Van der Ziel A.: Transistor noise at high injection levels. IEEE Trans on Electron Devices, Vol.15, no. 5, 1968, pp 307 – 313. DOI 10.1109/T-ED.1968.16182

  93. Fukui H.: The Noise Performance of Microwave Transistor. IEEE Trans on Electron Devices, vol. ED-13, no. 3, March 1966, pp 329 – 341. DOI 10.1109/T-ED.1966.15689

  94. Johnson K.H., Van der Ziel A., Chenette E.R.: Transistor noise at high injection levels. IEEE Trans on Electron Devices, Vol.12, no. 6, 1965, pp 387 – 388. DOI 10.1109/T-ED.1965.15509

  95. Gibbons J.F.: Low-frequency noise figure and its application to the measurement of certain transistor parameters. IRE Trans on Electron Devices, vol. 9, no. 3, 1962, pp. 308 – 315. DOI 10.1109/T-ED.1962.14988

  96. Nielsen E. G.: Behaviour of Noise Figure in Junction Transistors. Proc. of the I.R.E., vol. 45, July 1957, pp 957 – 963. DOI 10.1109/JRPROC.1957.278506

  97. Guggenbuehl W., Strutt J.O.: Theory and Experiments on Shot Noise in Semiconductor Junction Diodes and Transistors. Proc. of IRE, June 1957, pp 839 – 854. DOI 10.1109/JRPROC.1957.278483

  98. Montgomery H. C.: Transistor Noise in Circuit Applications. Proc. of the I.R.E., vol. 40, Nov. 1952, pp 1461 – 1471. DOI 10.1109/JRPROC.1952.273980


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